The original Bloomberg article, on which the recent Citizens for Tax Justice report is based.
Because of bad strategic decisions, IBM has had less revenue than expected over the past several years. As a result, its strategy has been to tap the American taxpayers while lobbying Congress and states to give it taxpayer business (like what happened in Pennsylvania). That’s beside the issue of leaving American markets open to large companies that, arguably, are American controlled but that do a majority of business elsewhere.
When GM makes cars in China, China expects that a certain amount of the content of those cars is made in China.
By the way, it’s not only America that IBM is cheating. They did the same thing to Japan, about six years ago. As a result, Japan didn’t get tax revenue it expected from the American-controlled Japan unit. What did Japan do? It changed the law to prevent the tax trick from being exploited in the future.